FEDERAL AGENCY ON EDUCATION
Federal state autonomous educational institution of
higher professional education
"Siberian Federal University"
Institute of Pedagogic, Psychology and Sociology
Recommendation paper on the project «Actions of Lifelong Learning addressing Multicultural Education and Tolerance in Russia» in the framework of the project «TEMPUS ALLMEET»
WP2 «Analysis of the existing knowledge, practices and policies»
head of the project _______________ O. Smolyaninova
writing team: prof., doctor of education O. Smolyaninova
associate prof., candidate of sociological science D. Trufanov
masters’ degree in educational management E. Valyaeva
The Krasnoyarsk Territory (krai in Russian) is a multional region: according to the National Population Census 2010 there are representatives of 159 nationalities. By the end of 2012, on the Krasnoyarsk Territory more than 70 national and cultural associations operated. Given their branches and centers in the municipalities, the total number of civil society institutions and organizations with an ethnic component reaches two hundred.
In recent years, the administration of the Krasnoyarsk Territory has often triggered various monitoring studies focused on researching the level of national and religious tolerance of locals and newcomers. National and cultural associations receive state support. However, the results of sociological research in the Krasnoyarsk Territory reveal areas of risk associated with foreign labor migration and ethnic relations (migrantophobia, negative publicity about interethnic relations, the discontent of the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with that they live in a multinational environment).
In order to prevent these types of risks Institute of Pedagogy, Psychology and Sociology of Siberian Federal University offers a project on implementation continuous intercultural education in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The project aims at the development of multicultural competence of the person, which is the key to creating a favorable social environment in a multinational region. The main instrument for the implementation of the project is intercultural education platform – integrated interactive educational resource of efficient collaboration in the multicultural educational environment of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
2. Prerequisite for continuous intercultural education
2.1. The purpose of continuous intercultural education (lifelong learning) is the development of multicultural competence of the person by means of intercultural education platform. Under the multicultural competence we understand the integrative quality of the person, which includes the system of multicultural knowledge, skills, interests, needs, motivations, values, multicultural qualities, experience, social norms and rules of behavior necessary for everyday life and work in a multicultural society.
The development of lifelong multicultural learning involves harmonization of interethnic relations through education means, which is related to the effectiveness of the system of education, the formation of a unified national (Russian), and cultural (ethnic, regional) identities. In these processes an important role is played by local education authorities, universities, schools, organizations providing additional education, government, civil society institutions.
2.2. Concepts related to the organization of lifelong intercultural learning.
Intercultural education is such education that supports a variety of cultures, their values, communication and languages, strengthening solidarity in environments with different levels of resources.
Inclusive society is a society which is based on the principles of respect and tolerant attitude to diversity.
Lifelong learning is educational opportunities throughout the whole lives: flexible education, diverse and affordable at different times and in different places. Its organization implies the realization of educational activities from childhood to the higher education and adult education, and includes formal, non-formal and informal methods of education. Education throughout life is linked to the philosophy of education and educational policy for the creation of conditions for coverage of all kinds of formal and informal education and lifelong learning. It should also provide a variety of opportunities to meet the educational needs of a man. In the broadest sense, the concept of continuous education considers learning as a strategy for personal and professional development to help people in determining their own deficiencies, creating their educational trajectory and having successful professional career. In this regard, continuous education is related to theories of human development. Opportunities for continuous education are extravagant thanks to Internet technologies for distant learning, technology of personal planning, evaluation and development (ePortfolio). In some countries (e.g., in the UK), a national policy on vocational education and training is aimed at creating learning opportunities for citizens throughout their working life (various forms of training, enabling learning experience at a convenient time for the person and in a convenient location). The University of Berdfordshir (UOB, UK) pays a lot of attention to the development of personnel connected with the planning of personal development (personal development planning - PDL), the introduction of information technology training and focusing on the global competitive labor market. Kumar (2007), justifying the relevance of the paradigm of lifelong learning, notes that “if a person wants to have access to employment throughout life in a rapidly changing world, they must rely on the continuous development and demonstration of their achievements, which is fundamental for success in the global knowledge-based economy”.
Intercultural education platform is a specially organized system of interaction between the subjects of the educational process and other members of the institutions of formal and non-formal education. Its goal is the implementation of practices of multicultural education in Russian regions, the development of multicultural competence and tolerance of subjects of educational space.
Cultural diversity is the variety of forms, in which the cultures of different social communities find their expression. These patterns of expression are transferred within the groups and societies and between them. Cultural diversity is manifested not only through the varied ways in which the cultural heritage of humanity is realized, augmented and transmitted through the variety of cultural expression forms, but also through diverse modes of artistic creation, as well as the production, dissemination, distribution and consumption of cultural expression production, irrespective of the means and technologies used.
2.3. Existing strategies and best practices.
Adaptation of migrants experience.
ACIDI website (www.acidi.gov.pt), recently renewed, works as an “intercultural window” and has the objective of keeping the public informed about the main issues linked to immigration and intercultural dialogue, serving not only as a means of disseminating useful and practical information, but also publicizing the main activities undertaken by ACIDI.
With a vision that is both comprehensive and segmented concerning the various target groups, the ACIDI website, presented as an institutional site, is configured as a platform of information distributed among the various thematic sections.
ACIDI’s magazine B-i (trimestral information bulletin) with the dual objective of informing and training people on the most relevant developments in the area of immigration and intercultural dialogue in Portugal, represents a thematic approach of the area of immigration and intercultural dialogue in Portugal, working as a fundamental tool for analysis and opinion in what concerns ACIDI’s activities. With a current distribution of 6,000 copies, aiming for a broadened and diversified distribution (opinion makers, Academics, Immigrant Associations, NGOs, Local Councils, other Public Services, Social Communication Professionals, etc…) – this communication tool has increasingly been consolidated as a priority communication channel between ACIDI and various actors in Portuguese society.
SOS IMMIGRANT PHONELINE
The SOS Immigrant Phoneline is a telephone service, created with the objective of providing immigrants and their respective associations, together with companies and Government agencies, with a general information service on the topic of immigration. This phoneline provides the service in eight languages, through socio-cultural mediators.
Considering the need to make useful and practical information available, structured in the form of questions and answers that respond to immigrant citizens’ queries, information leaflets were drawn up and published in Portuguese, English and Russian.
These information leaflets have been distributed to the public through ACIDI’s network (CNAIs, CLAIIs, Immigrant GIP network), as well as Immigrant Associations, NGOs, Local Councils and other Government Services.
One of the most innovative aspects of the image and the dynamics of the CNAIs has been, since their opening, the use of socio-cultural mediators of various origins, with competences in various languages, in order to provide support services to immigrant citizens. The fact that the mediators speak the same language, know the different cultures and, in many cases, have lived through migratory experiences identical to those of people who seek the services, is important as a factor in welcoming and proximity. The mediators provide a service in 12 different languages and dialects, such as Russian, Romanian, Ukrainian, Cape Verdean Creole and Chinese, among others. If a citizen only speaks a language that none of the CNAI mediators speak, there is the further possibility of recourse to the Telephone Translation Service, which covers around 60 languages.
The mediators who work at the CNAI are recruited through protocols drawn up between ACIDI and Immigrant Associations or Non-Governmental Organisations that work in the area of immigration.
The area of intercultural mediation is a strategic point in the promotion of interculturality. The mediation intervention developed in this sense allows the affirmation of the interculturality principal as a pillar for social cohesion. With that in mind, in 2009 ACIDI launched a pilot-project “Intercultural Mediation in Public
Services”, that has permitted the integration of cultural diversity management in public administrative services of various sectors (education, health, city halls and social services). It presently takes place in collaboration with 5 partners (immigrant associations and civil society organizations), 16 public services and 18 intercultural
mediation agents. The main innovation of the project results from a large training investment, namely through supervision processes and systematic monitoring of the practice with the agents and the institutions. As such, and as the last objective, from this experience resulted contributions for the elaboration of a training manual in intercultural mediation (to be made available to higher learning institutions) and, consequently for a better definition and framing of the agents’ profile. The reporting of this experience in view of it’s dissemination is one other resource to be available soon.
INTERCULTURAL TRAINERS ’ NETWORK
The ACIDI Intercultural Trainers’ Network, through a decentralized team presently made up of 36 trainers, provides support for undertaking awareness-raising sessions on Immigration, Citizenship and Interculturality. The extensive training offer available has the following objectives:
• To promote better comprehension of cultural
• To raise awareness for welcoming and integrating
immigrants in Portugal;
• To train for interculturality.
This team represents, since 2006, an available resource at the National level to all entities that intend to promote awareness-raising sessions in this area. The development of the project has confirmed the necessity of information and promotion of interculturality in the projects / field institutions, as well as the diversification of the entities that manifest interest in these dimensions. Counting 5 years of activity, the Intercultural Trainers’ Network responds to a strategic axis in ACIDI’s mission, giving sequence to priority public policies at the National and European level. This measure contributes towards a greater visibility/appropriation of the principles and values of democratic citizenship, including the most diverse of sectors and target-groups, such as schools, organizations, hospitals, courts and public and private organisms in general. The Intercultural Trainers’ Network can be contacted at the ACIDI site www.acidi.gov.pt or directly at the site www.entreculturas.pt, where more information on the different.
This is characterised by the provision of free legal advice to all immigrants who come to the Office.
There, a service of information, advice, referral and mediation is provided in areas as diverse as immigration, nationality, employment, social security, minors, and access to rights and to the courts, among others. This Office does not intervene in situations that require the intervention of the Courts or that are already being resolved there.
At the GARF – the Family Reunification Support Office, information is provided above all about the procedure for family reunification, namely the documents required for the process, legal deadlines, prior procedures to be undertaken by the interested parties, legalisation and translation of documents, and the competent consular posts, among others.
Pending processes are also accompanied, in order to obtain from the competent institutions the information that will facilitate a favorable conclusion to the request.
OI – IMMIGRATION OBSERVATORY
Among its various activities, ACIDI, I.P. has dedicated particular attention to the conception, implementation and evaluation of public immigration policies, with recourse to an essential strategic collaboration with academia and research centers, through its Immigration Observatory. This Immigration Observatory, created in 2003, has sought to play a fundamental role as a promoter of networks of academic and institutional cooperation, in order to guarantee rigorous knowledge of the topics that are the dominant concern of ACIDI, I.P. According to the philosophy “getting to know more so as to act better”, the Observatory has stimulated dialogue between academia and political decision-makers in relation to the proposal, discussion and evaluation of public policies in the area of the integration of immigrants in Portugal.
International Development Education Association Scotland (IDEAS)
Members include large NGOs, small organisations and individuals working in areas such as international development, global poverty, sustainable development, social justice and citizenship. They also include the regionally based Development Education Centres (DECs) who provide local practical teacher support.
IDEAS sees Development Education and Education for Global Citizenship as active learning processes that enable people to understand the links between their own lives and those of people throughout the world increase understanding of the economic, social, political and environmental forces that shape our lives develop skills, attitudes and values that enable people to work together to bring about change and take control of their lives contribute to the development of a more just and sustainable world, in which power and resources are more equitably shared. By raising awareness of global concerns and illustrating the potential for change, the IDEAS network aims to influence those in all sectors of formal and informal education and life long learning including teachers, policy makers, youth and adult education workers and a range of voluntary and statutory organizations.
“Leonardo da Vinci” Programme
· established in 1994 and from 2007 inserted into LLP as a specific programme for education and vocational training;
· with new programmes 2007-2013 and the new attention of European Commission towards innovation, the focus has been moved from competences valorisation to effective recognition and validation of them.Workers’ mobility (свободное передвижение сотрудников)
• With EU Lifelong Learning Programmes (particularly Erasmus Programme) mobility changed in last two decades from the point of view of emigration to a professionalization experience which could give relevance to the curriculum vitae;
• while students live in an European dimension, only the 48% of workers could be available to move to another country to find a job. This fact asks European Commission to improve its strategies to create a flexible workforce and an European career guidance system.
3. Current position of the problem
The problem of creating a multicultural learning environment and study of its impact on the development of a tolerant person is in one of the leading places in modern education. The concept of the multicultural learning environment concentrated on the formation of a tolerant person in the conditions of education throughout life is being developed in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in accordance with the goals and objectives of the state policy in the field of education of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, as defined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Russian Federation Law “On Education”, the Concept of spiritual and moral development and education of the citizen of the Russian Federation the Program of Education Development on the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
The Krasnoyarsk Territory is a multinational region. In this context it is natural that the circle of friends of most of the young people includes people of other nationalities. So up to 77% of students have acquaintances, friends and relatives belonging to other nationalities. However, only 23.3 % of senior pupils and students in Krasnoyarsk indicated that they are rather happy with what living in the multicultural environment, 32.6% expressed their dissatisfaction with this fact, and 44.1% were indifferent to this fact. Therefore, there is a need for the development and application of methods for ethnic tolerance development among the youth in the Krasnoyarsk Territory; these methods shall be aimed at creating a positive attitude towards people of other nationalities.
The level of negative attitude towards foreign labor migration among the students in Krasnoyarsk is relatively high. In particular, up to 42% of pupils and students believe that the foreign labor migration is likely to harm the Krasnoyarsk Territory. According to 27.6% of students, foreign labor migration is more beneficial than harmful for the region and 28.6% believe that it does not significantly affect its development.
The image of foreign migrant workers in the mass consciousness of urban residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory also has many negative features. Thus, migrant workers in the representation of people of Krasnoyarsk are representatives of other ethnic groups, immigrants from the former Soviet Union and China, mostly men aged 25 to 34 years, employed in the construction industry and market trade, who came to Russia for the purpose of earning. They often demonstrate deviant behavior, do not have Russian citizenship, break the order of registration on the territory of arrival.
These findings point to the need to enhance the formation of an overall integrated environment, which is based on universal values and designed for the interaction of foreign migrant workers and the youth of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
As the sociological studies conducted in the Krasnoyarsk Territory show, the most active sources of information on interethnic relations among the youth are the media (television, radio, printed media, and the Internet). In the second place there are traditional institutions of socialization (school, college, university, family, friends, and neighbors). At the same time, according to young people, they get the largest amount of negative information about international relations from the periodical press, television, radio. Sources, which broadcast the greatest amount of positive information about interethnic relations, are family and school, since about 50% of the respondents gave a positive assessment of these data sources.
In the mass consciousness of the adult population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory there were identified three sets of opinions related to the attitude towards people of other nationalities and foreign migrant workers. The most widely used set expresses an eclectic mix of tolerant attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups and at the same time hostile attitude towards migrant workers (31.9%). The second set of opinions has almost three times lower prevalence (11.1%) and expresses opinions that characterize a generally positive attitude towards migrant workers. The third set (8.5%) expresses a tolerant attitude toward otherness, “not complicated by migration factor.
These results suggest that the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory against the background of the declared tolerant attitude towards people of other nationalities has the signs of migrantophobia. In this vein, there should be relevant search for and application of mechanisms of formation of a tolerant attitude towards foreign migrant workers that will help prevent potential negative effects on the basis of migrantophobia on the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
4. Approaches, methods and resources
In the analysis of the current situation of the problems associated with inter-ethnic and interreligious relations in the Krasnoyarsk region, as well as with the issue of foreign labor migration there were used the following methods:
1. Sociological opinion polls.
1. Sociological study of the attitude of students of primary vocational and secondary vocational educational institutions in the city of Krasnoyarsk to the representatives of different nationalities living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, 2008/2009.
2. Sociological study of the attitude of students of medical specialties to the institution of religion (Krasnoyarsk), 2009.
3. Ethnic and religious tolerance of the students on the Krasnoyarsk Territory on the example of Krasnoyarsk and Norilsk, 2010.
4. The attitude of students of primary vocational and secondary vocational educational institutions in Krasnoyarsk to the representatives of different nationalities living on the Krasnoyarsk Territory: report on the results of sociological research, 2010.
5. Ethnic and religious tolerance among the population of the main socially significant cities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (Information and Reference Bulletin), 2012.
6. The attitude of the adult urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to the representatives of other nationalities and labor migration, 2014.
7. SFU students’ attitude towards the representatives of other nationalities and foreign migrant workers, 2014.
2. Expert survey, which is to determine the current state and prospects of development of interethnic and inter-confessional relations in the Krasnoyarsk Territory; to reveal the hidden conflicts and potential conflict areas; to identify their causes and factors that influence their development. Experts include: representatives of state and municipal governments, non-profit sector and public opinion leaders, the media representatives, teachers and researchers.
3. The method of analysis of documents: analysis of statistical data, regulations, scientific literature.
5.1. Defining the current level of tolerance in the regional community, identification of open and hidden conflicts in society in relation to the migrants or the existence of ethnic groups.
The adult population of Krasnoyarsk has no apparent alienation from and a gap of social distance towards representatives of other nationalities. The number of residents, who do not wish to enter into any relations with the representatives of other nationalities, exceeded the number of those wishing to enter into a relationship with them regarding only the consent to marry the people of other nationalities. More than a half of the urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory expressed reluctance to have marital relations with the representatives of other nationalities (52%), but and 47.1% in one way or another can agree to marry such people. At the same time the proportion of consonants to marry the representatives of other nationalities, regardless of their ethnicity, is 12.5%, while the number of those who would agree to marry to the representatives of only some ethnic groups is 34.6%. In all other kinds of relations the share of urban residents, who considered general consent to enter into relations with the representatives of other nationalities, is higher than the proportion of those, who would not agree to have such a relationship.
The most part of the urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory thinks of the ethnic situation in the region as stable, whereas assuming that in the region there may be local ethnic conflicts resulting from common domestic violence. About a third of respondents (29.9%) reported that the interethnic situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory is unstable, and an ethnic conflict can happen at any time.
The opinions of men and women living in the cities of Krasnoyarsk Territory on the state of interethnic situation in the region differ slightly. Among men, there are a little more those who consider the interethnic situation in the region as a stable one, without the threat of interethnic conflicts, as well as there are more those who believe that the interethnic situation in the region is unstable, and an ethnic conflict can happen at any time; women are more likely to view the interethnic situation is stable, but there can be local ethnic conflicts on the grounds of common domestic violence.
In all age groups of the adult urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory the dominating view is that the interethnic situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory is generally stable. However, the citizens admitted the possibility of interethnic conflicts on the grounds of common domestic violence.
Among the citizens with different educational levels in all cases the dominating opinion on the ethnic situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory as stable, while people admitted the possibility of local ethnic conflicts resulting from common domestic violence. Nevertheless, the citizens having secondary and secondary vocational education are more concerned with the ethnic situation in the region, compared to the residents with higher education; they often point to its instability, as well as the risk of an interethnic conflict.
Residents of the cities of Krasnoyarsk Territory tend to give a more positive response regarding the interethnic situation in the region, as compared to Krasnoyarsk dwellers. Krasnoyarsk dwellers, in their turn, slightly more often (by 4%) characterize the interethnic situation as generally stable, while admitting the possibility of local interethnic conflicts resulting from common domestic violence. The percentage of respondents indicating that the interethnic situation is unstable and an ethnic conflict can happen at any time is similar and amounts to 30%.
Up to 44% of citizens assess the impact of migrant workers on the Krasnoyarsk Territory as both useful and harmful, 24.5% see migrant workers as more harmful than good for the region and 15% indicated that migrant workers may do more good than harm for the region. The opinions of men and women in relation to the nature of the impact of migrant workers on the Krasnoyarsk Territory in terms of benefits and harms are similar.
In all age groups of the adult urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory there is the prevalent opinion that the Krasnoyarsk Territory will see migrant workers’ harms and benefits equally. In this respect, the maximum level of the share of citizens agreed with this opinion is in the subsample of middle-aged respondents.
Distribution of opinions about the benefits or harms of labor migration in groups of urban citizens with different levels of education does not form a stable pattern. As for this factor, respondents with higher education see more use in labor migration (19%) and less damage (18.8%), as compared to the citizens having other levels of education. The opinion on the minor labor migration benefit is detected among answers of the respondents with vocational secondary education.
Among the residents of Krasnoyarsk the number of those, who believe that migrant workers will bring the benefit and harm equally, is by 9.4% more than the number of those thinking similarly, who live in the cities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Among the residents of cities in the region there are more those, who believe that migrant workers will bring more good than harm (up to 20.2%, in Krasnoyarsk - 11.3%).
5.2. Defining participants influencing the level of tolerance, as well as influencing policy towards migrants and ethnic groups. Determining the level of institutionalization of these participants.
The main actors in influencing the level of tolerance are the media: television, radio, newspapers and the Internet. The survey revealed that the most common sources from which city dwellers receive a lot of information about the national issue are modern mass media - television and the Internet (in the first place). Thus, 46.9% and 51.7% of city residents indicated that they get a lot of information about the national issue from the Internet and TV, respectively. In the second place there are such sources as friends, neighbors (24.4%), newspapers, magazines (24%), radio (22.7%). Traditional institutions of socialization - family and school - take the third place in the list of sources of information on the national issue. In particular, 19.7% of residents indicated that they receive a lot of information about it in the family, from parents, and 15.7% - from the school. The last place in the ranking of sources is for book: up to 14% of city residents indicated that they receive a lot of information about the national issue from books. Thus, the urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory receives information on the national issue mainly from the media. Moreover, among these sources television and the Internet are the most informative.
The global network of Internet and television as the dominant sources of information on the national issue, according to the urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, broadcast predominantly negative information about interethnic relations. Thus, 40.9% and 46.3% of city residents indicated that they receive mostly negative information about the national issue from TV and the Internet, respectively. Other sources, according to the respondents, broadcast predominantly neutral information about interethnic relations
Noteworthy is that the sources occupying the second place in the amount of broadcast information about the national issue (radio, newspapers and magazines, friends and neighbors) in the standpoint of 23-28% of the urban residents offer mostly negative information about the matter. Maximum positive information about interethnic relations is transferred through traditional institutions of socialization - school (34.2%) and family (23.6%). In this respect, in the list of sources according to the amount of broadcast information these institutions are relatively little informative.
The level of institutionalization of these participants is high.
5.3. Identifying the factors that affect the situation of the migrant and ethnic groups, especially the factors that can lead in increasing religious and ethnic tensions and conflicts, as well as be able to provoke an intercultural conflict.
Factor 1. The average estimates of migrant workers in the representation of people from the central group of cities and districts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory are as follows. Migrant workers are members of other ethnic groups, immigrants from the former Soviet Union and China, who arrived in Russia with the aim of earning. In this case, migrants often expose deviant behavior.
In the view of the inhabitants of the central group of cities and districts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory a concept of “migrant workers”, who arrived in the territory of Russia with the aim of earning. Cluster of opinions expressing this content, ranks the first place in the structure of ideas about labor migration. Typical statements of the respondents, which we have joined in this cluster, are as follows:
Migrant workers are Gastarbeiters; all non-Russians who came to work; people who have moved to another country for earnings; guest workers; immigrants from other countries who came to work in Russia, etc.
The second place is for cluster of opinions about migrants as members of other ethnic groups - immigrants from the former Soviet Union as well as China and Korea. Specific to the cluster of public opinion are the following characteristics: migrant workers are Chinese; people of Caucasian nationality; chinks; natives of Dagestan, China, who do not know the Russian language; Tajiks; not Russians and so on.
With a minimal difference from the previous cluster the third place is occupied by the cluster of opinions about migrant workers as carriers of deviant behavior (bandits; loafers; extremists; tramps; thieves; savages; invaders; evil for the people of the country; criminal segment of society; people who moved to Russia for employment; people who do not respect the Russian people; nothingness; criminals, etc.).
Cluster, which took the fourth place in ranking, is associated with the ideas of the population that migrant workers are people who are not citizens of Russia and have problems with the registration. Migrant workers are unrecognized Russian citizens; citizens of neighboring countries who do not have Russian citizenship; people who do not have Russian citizenship; people without citizenship who reside illegally in the territory of the Russian Federation; people who work in the state, not being one of its nationals; mostly people without registration, etc.).
On the fifth place there is cluster expressing ideas about migrant workers as people who “came to work with us”. In this case, the respondents do not emphasize belonging of these workers to other nationalities and do not characterize them as citizens of other countries. Characteristic opinions here are the following: migrant workers are people who came to get a job; people looking for decent wages for their quality work; people who came to work within specialties, which are in demand; the low-skilled workers; the workers and merchants; workaholics, etc.
This is followed by cluster of opinions, in which migrant workers are represented as forced to immigrate, disadvantaged people who have no rights, means of work and are in need of help and support. Here, respondents note that migrant workers are poor people from other countries; unemployed from neighboring states; unemployed, looking for a place where it is good; disenfranchised people; hostages of labor system of their countries; people who cannot earn in their own country; people who are in a difficult financial situation; people who have been trapped in their own country in a difficult situation; echoes of the wrong economic and social policy of the state; people who may do more than they can in their home country; people who need help and support.
Factor 2. Modern virtual social networks are a broad discussion platform, where users share their views on various issues, including the question of religion and interethnic relations. In these discussions the collective judgments and estimates are formed, and then they function at the level of public opinion and may have an impact on the mass behavior. In this context, virtual social networks have the potential to act as an instrument for directional influence on the religious and interethnic situation in society, inciting national and religious hatred.
Furthermore, women more often than men stated the danger of using virtual social networks as a means of inciting national and religious hatred.
For example, among women there are up to 60% of those who point to such a possibility, while among men the proportion of such respondents is 49%. Also, women significantly less often than men believe that the use of virtual social networks as a means of inciting national and religious hatred is not possible - 10.9% among men and 24% among women stated such an event as probable. This finding suggests that women are more likely to have social fears associated with interreligious and interethnic relations, as compared to men.
Middle-aged respondents, compared to other age groups, more frequently refer to the use of virtual social networks as a means of inciting national and religious hatred. Among them, the present danger was indicated by 62.3% of the respondents, while the share of such responses among the youth is 51.9% and among pensioners this share is 32.8%. In this opinion poll the view of pensioners should be considered only nominally due to the fact that this category of urban residents sticks to the practice of using Internet resources minimally.
In contrast, among young people there are more those who think it impossible to use virtual social networks in this way - 22.7%. Thus, young people are more skeptical about the dangers of the use of virtual social networks for inciting national and religious hatred in the society.
However, the respondents said that they relatively seldom observe in the virtual social networks threads, blogs, and discussions, comments, dedicated to the discussion of religion and interethnic relations. It should be noted that 14% and 12.4 % of respondents, respectively, admitted the fact that they met issues of religion and interethnic relations in social networks. Among the topics of religion in social networking respondents most often encountered the topics that discuss the questions of the existence of God and connection with Him, as well as questions about the practice of fasting, religious rituals and festivals. Among the topics of interethnic relations in social networks the leading place was for questions of interethnic conflicts, crime of illegal migrants and the activities of radical nationalist organizations.
5.4. Comparative analysis of different approaches that have been developed in the EU, their evaluation and selection of the optimal approach under certain conditions in Russia.
Different approaches to work with migrants and representatives of various ethnic groups which are used in EU countries ЕС employ several practical tools (§ 2.3). Basic methods of such work are:
* Informing the community, migrants and representatives of different ethnic groups about the general issues concerning migration and intercultural dialogue. The goal of such work is not only transmitting the important and necessary information but announcing the activities undertaken in the sphere of migrant and interethnic relations.
* Publishing the magazines which are the place for discussions on the problems arising in the ethnic and migrant sphere for different community groups including representatives of ethnic and migrant groups. Within the community this tool ensures the dialogue on different aspects of the mentioned above relations and supports working out solutions.
* Providing migrants and representatives of the ethnic groups with information support, hot-line telephone service, distribution of information leaflets and etc. Such tool allows giving quick response in case of the emerging problem wich concerns people from the mentioned above target groups.
* Supporting migrants and representatives of ethnic groups by means of face-to-face meetings. This instrument involves immigrant associations, social organizations, and mediator network agencies speaking to the representatives of the target groups the same language, obtaining the knowledge of the cultural background and having immigrant experience. Such work allows promoting the principles of intercultural interaction as background for social solidarity.
* Providing migrants and representatives of the ethnic groups with educational services offered by different educational centers. Different educational programs are aimed at educating representatives of the target groups and at training specialists for working with such groups (teachers, tutors, trainers, etc.).
Thus different approaches to work with migrants and representatives of ethnic groups employ both direct and indirect tools. Indirect tools are such ways of work with the target groups which do not involve face-to-face contact with representatives of the target groups. This is mostly informing migrants and representatives of ethnic groups by means of telephone,
information leaflets and magazines. Direct tools are such ways of work as personal consulting of representatives of the target groups carried out at special institutions; educational services such as seminars, workshops, lectures, etc.
For Russia the both direct and indirect tools are important. Some of these tools are already used in Russia including Krasnoyarsk region. “Ethno-Mir” magazine devoted to the ethnic issues is being published; social activities involving representatives of national autonomies, and etc. take place in Krasnoyarsk region.
These tools should be supported by research – by social monitoring of interethnic and migrant processes in regions of Russia for duly discovering the emerging problems and quick response to these problems.
Thus the optimal approach in Russia should include from the one hand employing indirect tools aimed at free information exchange on ethnic and migrant issues, and from the other hand employing direct tools for solving problems of practical character in these sphere emerging here and now. The monitoring of the interethnic and migrant processes should be carried out by means of sociological methods.
Experts (politicians, leaders of non-governmental organizations and leaders representing public opinion) point to the following issues related to interethnic relations and foreign labor migration, which are possible in the future.
1. The occurrence of conflicts involving foreign migrant workers, if workers will “take” jobs from the local population. Currently, this problem is latent. The majority (61.2%) of urban residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory reported that they do not feel competition from migrant workers in the labor market. Most residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (61.5%) responded negatively about their willingness to take jobs that migrants are now doing. The proportion of respondents ready to take the jobs occupied by migrants is 18.1%.
Citizens who feel this competition are more common among middle-aged respondents aged 30-59 years (21.5%).
3. If there is a growth in the number of crimes involving the representatives of other nationalities, foreign migrant workers, this factor may cause active protest from the local population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
4. Risk factor is the increase in the number of foreign migrant workers, the emergence of united localized groups of migrants on the Krasnoyarsk Territory. These groups can become a serious force capable of firmly defending its interests. In connection with this risk factor there is the emergence of minority areas - areas populated by the representatives of one and the same ethnic group.
In this context it is prominent that the most part of the adult urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory indicated that state control of migrants needs to be tightened on the territory of both Russia (65.5% ) and the Krasnoyarsk Territory (58.7%). At the same time there was revealed more urban residents’ loyalty to the existing state control of migrants on the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in comparison with this type of state control in Russia as a whole. This suggests that urban residents evaluate the migration situation in Russia as more intense compared with the migration situation on the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Against the background of the predominance of the urban residents in all age groups, who supported a stricter form of state control, the respondents of the urban youth (aged 16-29 years) are the most prominent supporters of this tightening of state control. More moderate position is shared by the middle-aged and senior citizens. Residents of the cities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with higher education are more loyal in their assessments of the existing state control regarding migrants, as compared to the respondents with secondary and secondary vocational educational levels.
5. Increase of national sentiments among the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Currently, 68.6% of citizens in one way or another do not support the radical national sentiments. Along with this, 29.8% of respondents reported that they do not support these sentiments, 38.8% reported that they rather do not support these sentiments. Among men, compared to women, there is greater support of radical nationalist movements.
Based on the results of sociological research, and expert interviews the researchers can estimate the interethnic situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory as generally stable. Positive factor contributing to the improvement of interethnic relations in Krasnoyarsk and the Krasnoyarsk Territory is activities of national and cultural associations. According to estimates, most of the students (53%) are sure that the activities of national and cultural associations are useful for the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Although more than a quarter of respondents do not know about the existence of such associations. This fact, in turn, indicates the need for raising awareness on the Krasnoyarsk Territory of the activities of national and cultural associations.
Nonetheless, there may be local ethnic conflicts resulting from common domestic violence. The results of the research done by the working group and analysis of the situation in the region include the following RECOMMENDATIONS:
1. To change the negative image of foreign migrant workers in the mass consciousness of the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. There should be media popularization of traditions, holidays, customs, other nationalities, the development of tolerance of the indigenous citizens and residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to the representatives of other nationalities, labor migrants.
2. To improve the quality of information on national and interethnic relations among the youth of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The most effective measures for promoting the relevant knowledge and information, according to the students, can be themed stories in the media, demonstrating the values of ethnic tolerance, informing about the culture, history and way of life of different peoples; international meetings, forums and other events held in the space of contemporary youth culture; organization of educational activities that are integrated into the education system at all levels, in order to disseminate knowledge of modern interethnic relations among the youth and establish values of tolerance to members of different nationalities.
3. To expand cooperation and collaboration with national-cultural associations in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, including their youth departments, to develop and adopt the concept of information policy in the region, coupled with the development of tolerance.
4. To create positive informational environment in that part of the life of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, which deals with interethnic relations and the treatment of foreign workers. For this purpose, the media should broadcast suitable themed stories, transferring the values of ethnic tolerance, informing about the culture, history and way of life of different nationalities; international meetings, forums and other events held in the space of contemporary youth culture; organization of educational activities that are integrated into the education system at all levels, in order to disseminate knowledge of modern interethnic relations among the youth and establish values of tolerance to members of different nationalities.
5. To overcome migrantophobia in the mass consciousness of Krasnoyarsk dwellers. In this regard, in order to create a positive climate of interethnic relations it is advisable to organize public events, which will discuss topical issues of labor migration; to increase the number of cultural activities in various institutions (schools, technical schools, colleges) for creating a more positive image of people of other cultures, including migrant workers; to hold public cultural events focused on the rapprochement of different cultures (fairs, open days in cultural centers, etc.).
6. The basic condition for overcoming migrantophobia and changing the migrants’ negative image in the mass consciousness of Krasnoyarsk dwellers is the formation of multicultural competence of the residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and, above all, of ethnic groups’ representatives and foreign migrant workers. The main risks are rooted in the minds and behavior of people, in this regard, it is necessary to form an integrative trait of a person, including the system of multicultural knowledge, skills, interests, needs, motivations, values, multicultural qualities, experience, social norms and rules of behavior necessary for everyday live and work in a multicultural society.
7. The instrument for forming multicultural competence can be intercultural education platform, which is being developed at the Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU. This platform is an interactive educational platform, a space for open dialogue on key issues of national policy, migration, social development, the interaction between educational, business authorities’ and civil society institutions.
Functioning of intercultural education platform involves the consistent implementation of the following steps
1 stage. Networking, cooperation with the heads of the national autonomies and religious diasporas, authorities and civil society institutions.
2 stage. Logistical and organizational preparation of the platform for work. Logistical preparation of the platform for work includes the preparation of the resources needed to make platform work. Organizational preparation involves the formation of the staff team with professional competencies needed to realize the platform.
3 stage. Sociological study of the actual needs and problems of self-realization in the society of the target groups of the platform. The task of sociological research is to get current information about the needs of ethnic and religious groups, migrant communities in relation to education, communication, self-realization in the society. The another object of this study is to identify the problems, which create obstacles to the target groups in achieving these needs.
4 stage. Informing the target groups about the platform’s services. The objective of this stage is to make information about the platform accessible and attractive for its target groups.
5 stage. Acceptance of an order for educational services of the platform.
At this stage, the target group refers to the skilled specialists working with the platform. These specialists record the customers, have interviews with them, evaluate their experience of self-realization, advise on the possibilities of their use of the platform’s services. On the basis of these interviews the platform’s experts produce personal training cards for each client working with the platform. Training includes validation prior learning, ePortfolio.
6 stage. The platform’s services’ realization. At this stage, the platform’s services related to training and socialization of the target group’s representatives are implemented. There are trainings, consultations, seminars and other forms of involving clients in the platform’s operation.
7 stage. Control of the platform’s performance. At this stage, there is monitoring results of the representatives of the target groups in training with the platform. Here, through the use of psychological and sociological methods, the specialists examine the main changes that have occurred to the clients in the course of their use of platform’s services.
We consider recommendations of VI all-Russian scientific and practical conference “Civic Education in the Information Age: Harmonization of Ethnic and Civic Identity, Interethnic and Interfaith relations through education” highly relevant. These recommendations have been adopted in the form of a resolution, which has found broad support in the educational and professional community. They advised:
Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Territory:
- To support social projects of educational institutions on the development of international (interethnic) and inter-confessional agreement, prevention of international (interethnic) conflicts and to support competition of social projects within the frameworks of the grant program of the Krasnoyarsk Territory “Social partnership for the sake of development”.
Department of Personnel and Civil Service of the Governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory:
– To include in the content of educational programs for professional retraining of civil servants of the Krasnoyarsk Territory tasks of forming special competencies in order to create interethnic communication, harmonization of interethnic relations in the multicultural environment.
Department of Public Relations of the Governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory:
- To systematically inform educational institutions about the activities of public ethno-cultural autonomies, about the results of sociological surveys of public opinion, about youth attitudes regarding interethnic relations;
- To provide libraries (resource centers) of educational institutions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with the almanac “Ethno-World on the Yenisei. About Peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Territory” in PDF format for teachers’ usage.
Ministry of Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk Territory:
˗ To develop regulations to address teaching children from immigrant families the Russian language, to develop standards on preferences for educational institutions with regard to demographic, ethnic and cultural features;
- To develop a format for monitoring the social composition of the students, taking into account the ethno-demographic processes, to consider in connection with this the possibility of developing a typology of schools in accordance with the multicultural, social and cultural context;
- To develop a system of measures for methodological support in ethnic and pedagogical centers, municipal centers of multicultural education, school practices on harmonization of interethnic relations through educational means.
Heads of municipal self-government bodies:
- To pay particular attention to the harmonization of interethnic and interfaith relations, the development of the dialogue of cultures in children and youth environment, in educational institutions at all levels, during the development of a system of measures aimed at strengthening interethnic and interreligious harmony, prevention of international and interethnic conflicts.
Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute for Teacher Training:
- To develop a system of learning modules and training programs for the development of competencies of leaders and educators in the field of interethnic communication, harmonization of the united Russian civic identity and cultural (ethnic, regional) identities through educational means;
- To give personalized professional development of teaching staff concerning the issues of civic education and education in the multicultural environment;
- To create basic experimental and development sites directed to developing competencies of leaders and educators in the field of interethnic communication, harmonization of the united Russian civic identity and cultural (ethnic, regional) identities through educational means;
- To create an electronic resource on the subject for educational institutions’ leaders and teachers on the website of the Institute;
- To develop guidelines on the content of education and training in the multicultural environment;
- To organize events to continue the discussion and ask questions about the harmonization of interethnic relations through educational means.
Heads of educational institutions of secondary general and secondary vocational education:
- To pay attention to the special importance of the personal role of the head of school for the harmonization of interethnic relations in the school environment, to the need in special competence in the field of harmonization of interethnic and interfaith relations through educational means;
- To take into account particular ethno-social composition during the development of programs of spiritual and moral education and socialization of students;
- To organize social and cultural integration at school as a mutual process of unification of students, who differ significantly in their ethno-cultural characteristics, and include teachers in the holistic school community based on shared goals, values and rules of life;
- To use of educational opportunities of the course “Basics of Religious Culture and Secular Ethics” for harmonization of interethnic and inter-confessional relations in the school environment;
- To organize the personalized teacher training concerning the issues of civic education and education in the multicultural conditions, to organize teachers’ training for learning how to teach Russian as a foreign language.
- To support joint projects, programs with educational institutions for the development of international and interethnic amity and prevention of international and interethnic conflicts.
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 Smolyaninova, O., Trufanov, D. (2014). The development of multicultural competence of students and teachers of the university by means of ePortfolio on the basis of the intercultural education platform. 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, July, 7-9, 2014. Barcelona, Spain. Pp.6414-6417 (Mode of access: http://library.iated.org/view/SMOLYANINOVA2014DEV).
 ACIDI (Alto Comissariado para a Imigracao e Dialogo Intercultural) – General Directorate for Migration and Intercultural Dialogue
 CNAL (Centro Nacional Apoio ao Imigrante) – National Centre for Immigrant Support
 GAJL (Gabinete de Apoio Juridico ao Imigrante) – Office of Legal Immigrant Support
 GAJL (Gabinete de Apoio Reagrupamento Familiar) – Office of Family Reunification Support
 Trufanov, D.O., Fen’vesh, T.A. The ethnic factor in the urban population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory: some results of sociological research for 2009-2012. Modern Problems of Science and Education. № 2. 2014. Mode of access: www.science-education.ru/116-12415 Mode of access: www.science-education.ru/116-12415